1 postsRe: Topic 3 DQ 2

Preventive care has its inherent characteristics embedded in the primary, secondary, and tertiary health promotion framework. Evidence-based research suggests that the three components of promotion should be incorporated to achieve effective treatment processes and disease prevention. According to Ali and Katz (2015), in 2010, tobacco use was the leading cause of death accounting for 435 000 deaths while diet and lack of physical activity followed with 400 000 cases in the United States. Although health promotion levels differ in cost and approach, they interlace with public health tenets to appropriate control measures for such preventable conditions and deaths by initiating awareness campaigns and determining educational needs for patients.

Levels of health promotion have disparities in costs and approaches to the administration of the appropriate treatment. The primary level involves the strategies that inhibit the occurrence of diseases. Such methods include vaccination, alteration of ill-health behaviors, and prohibition of foods and substances that increase susceptibility to illnesses. Comprising the primary level, upstream approaches diverge from the secondary and tertiary because they are cheaper and more efficient and constitute lower morbidity and mortality rates (World Health Organization [WHO], 2020). In addition, the primary level concerns the enhancement of the general health of the public as opposed to secondary and tertiary stages, which entail personalized treatment. Secondary prevention encompasses screening for diseases before signs and symptoms appear. In contrast, the tertiary level involves the mitigation of disease progression after diagnosis and manifestation of symptoms. Thus, the levels of health promotion differ in cost, effectiveness, and the administration of strategies depending on the stage of illness.

Although primary, secondary, and tertiary levels diverge in approach, they overlap with the principles of public health. The fundamental policy of the promotion levels is to facilitate the prevention of diseases. Healthcare providers, professionals, institutions, and the community environment are responsible for implementing this proposed action (WHO, 2020). Moreover, these promotion levels offer specific information on how to administer treatment. Primary prevention creates awareness for people to vaccinate and avoid indulgence in food and substances associated with illnesses. Secondary and tertiary levels enhance screening processes that help in diagnosing the diseases and stages to ensure the appropriate preventive measures are implemented. Therefore, levels of promotion align with public health policies and offer information on preventive measures.

Despite the cost and varying approaches to prevention, primary, secondary, and tertiary levels of promotion correspond to public health policies. Health institutions administer them to promote disease prevention and address the educational needs of patients. Health professionals, institutions, and governments should foster health promotions in societies to ensure optimal disease prevention.


Ali, A., & Katz, D. L. (2015). Disease prevention and health promotion: How integrative medicine fits. American Journal of Preventive Medicine49(5), 230-240. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4615581/

World Health Organization (WHO). (2020). EPHO5: Disease prevention, including early detection of illness. Retrieved from https://www.euro.who.int/en/health-topics/Health-systems/public-health-services/policy/the-10-essential-public-health-operations/epho5-disease-prevention,-including-early-detection-of-illness2

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