Discussion 1: Systems Theory: Systems, Settings, and Sources of InfluenceOne of the most well-known systems theories in psychology is Bronfenbrenner’s ecological model. The model consists of several interrelated systems, beginning with the individual at the center then expanding to include the individual’s immediate family and friends (microsystem); extended family, school, and work (exosystem); and culture and society as a whole (macrosystem). This model can be used as a framework to understand human development and behavior and to design effective interventions to address many different psychological and societal issues.Consider how this model might be applied to better understand the development and behaviors of a transgender teenager. Suppose the teenager, who now calls herself Shelly, has recently informed her parents and close friends that she would like to officially transition to being a girl. Initially she is overjoyed that her parents and close friends are supportive (microsystem). Then, after attending school for a week and going to a family reunion dressed as a girl, Shelly is met with harsh criticisms from some of her peers and teachers at school as well as her grandparents (exosystem). In fact, she overhears her parents and grandparents arguing about her transition and is immediately overcome by guilt and despair. Finally, while she is encouraged by positive media regarding a celebrity who recently transitioned, she is saddened to learn that the larger public opinion and recent government policies are discriminatory to transgendered persons (macrosystem). Therefore, due to her desire to become accepted at school, by her grandparents, and by society at large, she decides to stop her transition even though it causes her great distress to do so.This example illustrates the complex and competing pressures among the systems of Bronfenbrenner’s model, which can affect the thoughts, feelings, and behaviors of the individual at the center of the model. In this discussion, you will consider how the model applies to the competing pressures in your own life.To PrepareRead the article, General systems theory: Its past and potential. Pay particular attention to how von Bertalanffy’s general system theory originated and evolved and how the author of the article characterizes the terms, “systems,” “structures,” and “relations.”Review pp. 514-515 of Bronfenbrenner (1977) to understand the definitions of each system within the ecological systems model.Review Bronfenbrenner’s Ecological Model, located in this week’s learning resources. Focus on the meaning and interrelationships among the microsystem, exosystem, and macrosystem from a child’s perspective. Consider how these systems would be generalized to apply to an adult.Using Bronfenbrenner’s model, identify two out of three systems (microsystem, exosystem, macrosystem) and their settings (school, work, family gatherings, neighborhood, country, etc.). Think about how demands and expectations in one setting might impact your ability to meet demands and expectations in another setting.Post a response to the following:Identify the two systems you chose and describe settings within each system that influence your life and behavior/activity. Then explain how demands and expectations in one setting could impact the ability to meet demands and expectations in another setting. Be specific.ReferencesLearning ResourcesRequired ReadingsBorrell-Carrie, F., Suchman, A. L., & Epstein, R. M. (2004). The biopsychosocial model 25 years later: Principles, practice, and scientific inquiry. Annals of Family Medicine, 2(6), 576–582.Bronfenbrenner, U. (1977). Toward an experimental ecology of human development. American Psychologist, 32(7), 513–531. doi:10.1037/0003-066X.32.7.513Read pages 514-515.Caws, P. (2015). General systems theory: Its past and potential. Systems Research & Behavioral Science, 32(5), 514–521. doi:10.1002/sres.2353Davies, C., Knuiman, M., & Rosenberg, M. (2016). The art of being mentally healthy: A study to quantify the relationship between recreational arts engagement and mental well-being in the general population. BMC Public Health, 16(15), 1–10. doi:10.1186/s12889-015-2672-7Wijenberg, M. L. M., Stapert, S. Z., Kohler, S., & Bol, Y. (2016). Explaining fatigue in multiple sclerosis: Cross-validation of a biopsychosocial model. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 39, 815–822.Williams, J. M., McCrae, C. S., Rodrigue, J. R., & Patton, P. R. (2016). A novel application of a biopsychosocial theory in the understanding of disturbed sleep before and after kidney transplantation. Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine, 12(2), 247–256.Document: Bronfenbrenner’s Ecological Model (PDF)Document: Psychology Theories Template (Excel Spreadsheet)Optional ResourcesMeyer, D., Wood, S., & Stanley, B. (2013). Nurture is nature: Integrating brain development, systems theory, and attachment theory. The Family Journal, 21(2), 162–169. doi:10.1177/1066480712466808Note: Retrieved from the Walden Library databases.
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