Questions on Psychology and Philosophy
It looks longer than it is
Psychology Part 1, 2 Questions total
Psychology Part 2, Only 1 Questions
Philosophy 1 Questions
Psychology Part 1 Essay Questions
1. Please answer A or B
A. Explain how a specific phobia could be acquired through classical conditioning. Be sure to identify the unconditioned stimulus, unconditioned response, conditioned stimulus, and conditioned response in your example. Also, using classical conditioning, indicate how the phobia could be eliminated.
B.Define and then provide specific, every day examples (for instance, from child-rearing or from training a pet) of the following operant-conditioning phenomena: positive reinforcement, negative reinforcement, and punishment.
2. Imagine that you were involved in a legal case in which an eyewitness claimed that he had seen a person commit a crime.
Based on your knowledge about memory and cognition from your textbook, discuss some of the problems of
Psychology Part 2 choose 1 or 2 or you can also answer both questions
1) Operant Conditioning (or The Well-Behaved Pet)
First, review the following website on operant conditioning. http://www.edpsycinteractive.org/topics/behavior/operant.html
Go to your e-Reading chapt 7 on “Learning” (section 2) and review this material. http://www.saylor.org/site/textbooks/Introduction%20to%20Psychology.pdf
Knowing what we know about operant conditioning we should have perfectly behaved children and pets. Why don’t we? Think about this question. It might be a question you see again sometime =-)
Let’s just think about how we might use operant conditioning. Then start thinking about your pet.
Now, if you don’t have a pet, you could use a friend, your spouse or another family member (if you have their best interests in mind!). Really, the point is, that you try to use operant conditioning in some way to change behavior in some minor way.
Here is the activity for you:
The well-behaved pet
If you have a pet, you can use operant conditioning to teach your animal something you’d like it to do. Choose something simple. One student we know taught her cat to willingly enter the garage for the night by feeding the animal a special treat there each evening at the same time. Soon the cat was “asking” to get into the garage at bedtime! Another student taught her pastured horse to come to her and submit willingly to the halter by rewarding the animal’s occasional approach with a carrot. Soon the horse was approaching regularly and could be put on an intermittent schedule of reinforcement. Be creative, and see whether you can make your pet better behaved or more cooperative in some way.
If you don’t want to use a pet, or friend or family member, tell us of an experience you have had in which operant conditioning was used. Look over the e-Reading in the chapter on “Learning” section 2 to get some ideas. Try to use some of the ideas and terms in your comments.
Now answer the following…..
First define positive and negative reinforcement. Provide an example from everyday life of positive reinforcement, negative reinforcement, positive punishment, and negative punishment. According to Skinner and others, does punishment work? Your thoughts, Dr. L.
2) Analyze a Childhood Memory
The entire e-Reading chapter 8 on “Memory” will help with this assignment, however, focus on Accuracy and Inaccuracy in Memory and Cognition (Section 3).
Next do this exercise.
Write down as much as you can about an incident in your childhood that stands out in your memory. Now ask a friend or family member who was present at the time to write a description of the same event [or you can call and ask them about it on the phone, unless you use email to correspond with your friends/family]. Do your accounts differ? If so, why? What does this exercise tell you about the nature of memory—and about your own personality or present concerns?
Tie your findings into the readings mentioning important terms and concepts that reflect the accuracy or inaccuracy of our memories.
This week, we examine the work of two important philosophers from the United Kingdom: David Hume and George Berkeley. Hume insisted that al that can be known comes to us through our senses.
When discussing Hume, be sure to comment on Hume’s meaning when he says that we have no grounds for claiming that we know the existence of such things as our souls or God. Berkeley seems to assert that we can have no knowledge of what lies outside of our minds. Berkeley is subtle, but not psychotic. Do your best to get at the core of his argument concerning the nature of knowledge.
you can use this material: