Please no plagiarism and make sure you are able to access all resource on your own before you bid. Main references come from Van Wormer, K., & Davis, D. R. (2018) and/or American Psychiatric Association. (2013). You need to have scholarly support for any claim of fact or recommendation regarding treatment. I have also attached my discussion rubric so you can see how to make full points. Please respond to all 3 of my classmates separately with separate references for each response. You need to have scholarly support for any claim of fact or recommendation like peer-reviewed, professional scholarly journals. If you draw from the internet, I encourage you to use websites from the major mental health professional associations (American Counseling Association, American Psychological Association, etc.) or federal agencies (Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMSHA), National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH), National Institutes of Health (NIH), etc.). I need this completed by 03/16/19 at 10am.Expectation:Responses to peers. Note that this is measured by both the quantity and quality of your posts. Does your post contribute to continuing the discussion? Are your ideas supported with citations from the learning resources and other scholarly sources? Note that citations are expected for both your main post and your response posts. Note also, that, although it is often helpful and important to provide one or two sentence responses thanking somebody or supporting them or commiserating with them, those types of responses do not always further the discussion as much as they check in with the author. Such responses are appropriate and encouraged; however, they should be considered supplemental to more substantive responses, not sufficient by themselves.Read a your colleagues’ postings. Respond to your colleagues’ postings.Respond in one or more of the following ways:· Ask a probing question.· Share an insight gained from having read your colleague’s posting.· Offer and support an opinion.· Validate an idea with your own experience.· Make a suggestion.· Expand on your colleague’s posting.1. Classmate (D. Ras)Description of Behavioral AddictionSeveral behaviors, besides substance abuse, produce short-term reward that includes repeating the same acts despite negative consequences resulting in diminishing control over the behavior (Grant, Potenza, Weinstein, & Gorelick, 2010). Pathological gambling also referred to as a gambling disorder, has become the first recognized non‐substance behavioral addiction in the DSM‐5 (Van Wormer & Davis, 2018). The evidence that supported the reclassification of behavioral addictions as addictions found that gambling disorder including “similarities in symptoms (tolerance, craving, and withdrawal), co-occurring disorders, genetics, and the impact on brain chemistry” to substance use disorder (SUD) (Van Wormer & Davis, 2018, p.198). Problem gambling is a category used to indicate the person has developed some family, work, or financial problems because of gambling but has not met all the criteria of a full-blown addiction (Van Wormer & Davis, 2018). The DSM V defines gambling disorder as a “persistent and recurrent problematic gambling behavior leading to clinically significant impairment or distress”, as indicated by the individual exhibiting four or more out of the nine criteria listed (APA, 2013, p. 585). The past-year prevalence rate of gambling disorder is about 0.2%-0.3% in the general population (APA, 2013). The lifetime prevalence rate in the general population is about 0.4%-1.0% (APA, 2013). According to Van Wormer & Davis (2018), prevalence studies have confirmed problem gambling is concentrated among the poor and poorly educated. There is a link between gambling disorder and SUD as evidenced by the high prevalence rate of gambling disorder among substance abuse counselors where the majority are in recovery from SUD themselves (Van Wormer & Davis, 2018). Individuals from specific cultures and races are more likely to present with gambling disorder especially Chinese Americans who have strong gambling traditions (Van Wormer & Davis, 2018). African-Americans have higher prevalence rates than European Americans, with rates of Hispanic Americans similar to Europeans (APA, 2013). Indigenous populations such as Native Americans had the highest prevalence rates (Van Wormer & Davis, 2018). Other surveys indicate that men are more likely to be pathological or problem gamblers than women (Van Wormer & Davis, 2018). Description of One Commonly Used Treatment Protocol & One Significant Treatment Challenge There is overlap in pharmacological and behavioral treatments for SUD and gambling disorder (Mann, Fauth-Bühler, Higuchi, Potenza, & Saunders, 2016). Similar to SUD, an individual presenting with gambling disorder has features such as distorted thinking, impulsiveness, restless, and being easily bored. As a result of insecurities and low self-esteem, these individuals tend to feel lonely and depressed seeking approval from others (APA, 2013). Just as in SUD where the individuals believe “drugs” are the problem and the solution, individuals presenting with gambling disorder believe that “money” is their problem and their solution (APA, 2013). Keeping these factors in mind is important when creating treatment plan interventions. Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) is found to be the most effective in the treatment of SUD with similar findings in its utilization with gambling disorder. Cognitive interventions are based on the idea that thoughts, feelings, and behaviors are all interconnected, so a change in one affects a change in another. More specifically to gambling, cognitive therapies emphasize the development of irrational cognitive schemas in response to early and repeated wins (Van Wormer & Davis, 2018). According to Van Wormer & Davis (2018, p.209), the most common irrational belief concerns the “phenomenon of randomness, the extent to which outcomes could be predicted.” For example, “I have put so much money in this machine, it is ready to hit.” The role of the therapist is to help the client bring these irrational thoughts into their awareness, begin challenging them and then replace them with more effective beliefs that will allow them to begin making better choices for themselves. One significant treatment challenge is that there is little state money available to fund treatment for people presenting with gambling problems (Van Wormer & Davis, 2018). Van Wormer & Davis (2018) reported a study which found only a fraction of the estimated 5.7 million disordered gamblers received treatment through stated funded programs. Also, the Affordable Care Act that was put into place to ensure more people received insurance coverage does include “behavioral health coverage” as one of the nine essential health benefits (Van Wormer & Davis, 2018). However, it is being left up to the states to interpret what that includes, and it is even being discussed how some insurance companies are discriminating against persons with gambling disorders (Van Wormer & Davis, 2018). The fact that gambling is legal also causes great difficulty for the person presenting with gambling disorder to see the unmanageability in their lives and admit they have a problem. This coupled with the inaccessibility of treatment presents some challenges.Integrating a Strength-Based Perspective with This Addiction Individuals presenting with gambling disorder are experiencing a great deal of shame for some of the things they may have done to get money to continue gambling. Some of these things include: stealing money from their families, not paying household bills and/or not showing up to family functions. Utilizing a strengths-based perspective with this addiction provides the client with a new lens to view their lives. Instead of focusing on the things that are wrong or the mistakes they have made, the counselor using this approach helps the client highlight their strengths and identify individual goals they want to work on, even if they don’t initially include giving up gambling all together (Van Wormer & Davis, 2018). Helping the client see how they have used their identified strengths in the past to get through a difficult time instills hope they can do the same with this presenting problem. ReferenceAmerican Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th ed.). Washington, DC: Author.Grant, J. E., Potenza, M. N., Weinstein, A., & Gorelick, D. A. (2010). Introduction to behavioral addictions. American Journal of Drug & Alcohol Abuse, 36(5), 233–241. Retrieved from the Walden Library databases.Mann, K., Fauth-Bühler, M., Higuchi, S., Potenza, M. N., & Saunders, J. B. (2016). Pathological gambling: a behavioral addiction. World psychiatry: official journal of the World Psychiatric Association (WPA), 15(3), 297-298.Van Wormer, K., & Davis, D. R. (2018). Addiction treatment: A strengths perspective (4th ed.). Boston, MA: Cengage.2. Classmate (A. Mc)Internet Addiction One of the emerging behavioral addictions that have yet to be included in the DMS-5 is internet addiction, which encompasses different internet-related types, such as social media and internet gaming. To clarify, internet gaming disorder is included in the “conditions for further study” section of the DSM-5 (American Psychiatric Association, 2013). If internet addiction were included in the DSM-5, warning signs, or symptoms, might include spending increasing amounts of time online, failure to control this compulsion, jeopardized relationships, and using the internet and social media as a form of escape (Van Wormer & Davis, 2018). As mentioned by Van Wormer and Davis (2018), 16% of individuals ages 18 to 25 would qualify for a compulsive internet use diagnosis. One study done on a large European sample showed a prevalence rate of 4.4% for problematic internet use, with men preferring online gaming and women preferring social networking (Jorgenson, Hsiao, & Yen, 2016). There are many cultural influences to consider related to internet addiction, or social media addiction. For example, a culture or population’s access to internet would affect the likelihood of this addiction. A family with low SES might not have access to the internet as frequently as those with a higher SES, if at all. Religion is another cultural aspect to consider. Wood, Center, and Parenteau (2016) found that there is a positive relationship between internet use and anxiety, depression, and stress, and a negative relationship between internet use and spiritual well-being. In other words, helping a client regain spiritual strength could counter the effects of the internet addiction.Treatment Protocol and ChallengeOne common treatment protocol for internet addiction is cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT). In a qualitative study by van Rooij, Zinn, Schoenmakers, and Van de Mheen (2012), therapists found CBT to work quite well with internet addictions, similar to other addiction disorders. The CBT approach to internet addiction focuses on reducing time spent on the internet, creating more, real life, contacts, regaining daily structure, reframing beliefs, and finding new ways to spend free time (van Rooij et al., 2012). One treatment challenge for internet addiction is simply the prevalence of the internet in today’s world. Many things are moving from “real life” to the internet, not just friendships. Intimate relationships, modeling, counseling, and even education have also made this switch. Thus, it may be difficult for an individual being treated for internet addiction to reduce their time on the internet, especially if they are also involved on the internet for those listed reasons.Strengths-based PerspectiveI believe that the strengths-based approach would work well for internet addiction. An example that would demonstrate this belief well relates to all people and social networking. It is evident that many people, especially those who are addicted, are seeking approval from others via their social networking profiles, like Instagram. Thus, there may be room to help these clients gain a better sense of self and confidence. As listed in Van Wormer and Davis (2018), one question a counselor can ask a client who could benefit from cognitive restructuring would be, “When people say good things about you, what are they most likely to say?” (p. 234). The client’s answer would tell the counselor a strength that the client might see in themselves, and the rest of the session can be structured to assist the client in this realization.ReferencesAmerican Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th ed.). Washington, DC: Author.Jorgenson, A. G., Hsiao, R. C. J., & Yen, C. F. (2016). Internet addiction and other behavioral addictions. Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics, 25(3), 509-520.van Rooij, A. J., Zinn, M. F., Schoenmakers, T. M., & Van de Mheen, D. (2012). Treating internet addiction with cognitive-behavioral therapy: A thematic analysis of the experiences of therapists. International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction, 10(1), 69-82.Van Wormer, K., & Davis, D. R. (2018). Addiction treatment: A strengths perspective (4th ed.). Boston, MA: Cengage.Wood, M., Center, H., & Parenteau, S. C. (2016). Social media addiction and psychological adjustment: Religiosity and spirituality in the age of social media. Mental Health, Religion & Culture, 19(9), 972–983. Retrieved from Walden Library Databases.3. Classmate (L. Sim) Not only can people have addictions to substances, but there are behavioral addictions, too. It is important to understand the impact of these behavioral addictions and appropriate treatment protocols. Van Wormer and Davis (2018) shared that behavioral addictions involve altered states, where compulsions and obsessions are involved like substance addiction. Different addiction concerns will present with different challenges, too. Further, working from a strengths-based perspective is beneficial.Description Eating Disorders are cause for significant concern, as they can be severe behavioral addictions. Three categories of eating disorders are listed in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) (American Psychiatric Association [APA], 2013), including anorexia nervosa, bulimia, and binge eating disorder. Specifically, binge eating disorder was not always identified as a disorder and is the most closely related of eating disorders to substance use disorders (Van Wormer & Davis, 2018). For binge eating disorder, the APA (2013) described reoccurring episodes of binge eating, including larger then normal amounts of food and a lack of control over food intake, the eating episodes are associated with 3 or more specific behaviors, including eating very quickly, eating until uncomfortable, eating food when not hungry, eating alone due to embarrassment, and feeling disgusted with oneself after eating, significant distress is present, the binge eating happens at least once weekly for a period of three months, and the binge eating is not connected to anorexia nervosa or bulimia behaviors.The prevalence of binge eating disorder is 3.5% of women and 2.0% of men suffering from the disorder (Van Wormer & Davis, 2018 as cited in Hudson, Hiripi, Pope, & Kessler, 2007). The lifetime prevalence for binge eating disorder is 1.9% (Hilbert et al., 2019). Different factors influence an individual’s risk for developing an eating disorder. Van Wormer and Davis (2018) shared that gay and bisexual males are at a higher risk. The prevalence of binge eating disorders appears to be similar among non-Latino whites, Latinos, Asians, and African Americans (APA, 2013). In addition, American culture presents ideal images of what men and women should look like, depicting unreal expectations, which people attach to. Additionally, a major genetic component of developing eating disorders is addressed as a leading influence (Van Wormer & Davis, 2018).Treatment ProtocolTreatment of eating disorders needs to be addressed in numerous ways. Van Wormer and Davis (2018) described the best treatment for those suffering from eating disorders is multidimensional and a focus solely on symptom management is not appropriate, as exploring underlying issues associated with the disorder is needed. Research displayed that psychotherapy and psychopharmacological treatment together showed significant results, including a decrease in depression, which adds to the binge eating (Hilbert et al., 2019). Specifically, utilizing CBT to address irrational thoughts of individuals suffering from eating disorders is the choice for approach (Van Wormer & Davis, 2018). Working to replace and adjust irrational thoughts can help improve mood. Cardi, Leppanen, Leslie, Esposito, and Treasure (2019) shared research findings that negative mood and a lessened positive disposition usually occur before binge eating episodes and compulsive behaviors. This suggests the need to treat at a deeper level, with a focus on mood.Significant Treatment Challenge One major difference with food addiction compared to substances or other behaviors is that food cannot be avoided. Van Wormer and Davis (2018) described how individuals need food to survive, so they must be taught moderation. This can present as a major challenge. Individuals will forever be faced with food, an addiction they had/have. Within treatment the reasons behind the binge eating need to be addressed along with the development of healthy eating habits, including nutrition and weight management. This again speaks to the multidimensional treatment approach, as collaboration with other professionals may be appropriate.Strength-Based Perspective Utilizing a strength- based perspective is important with treating an individual diagnosed with binge eating disorder. These individuals are struggling with their guilt, shame, and embarrassment over their excessive eating. Many individuals struggling with binge eating disorder are also struggling with additional physiological disorders (Van Wormer & Davis, 2018). It is important to work with individuals on their strengths and positive ideas about themselves. Focusing only on binge eating and those negative feelings will not assist with someone suffering from the disorder. Cardi et al. (2019) shared that a positive mood is associated with lower chances of binge eating for someone suffering from binge eating disorder.Conclusion Understanding the impact of behavioral addictions is important. Many of these addictions are multifaceted and complex, requiring treatment and the understanding to be the same. Binge eating disorder is one behavioral addiction, which causes concerns and many issues. Treating an individual with this disorder correctly and completely will assist with recovery.ReferencesAmerican Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th ed.). Washington, DC: Author.Cardi, V., Leppanen, J., Leslie, M., Esposito, M., & Treasure, J. (2019). The use of a positive mood induction video-clip to target eating behaviour in people with bulimia nervosa or binge eating disorder: An experimental study. Appetite, 133, 400–404. https://doi-org.ezp.waldenulibrary.org/10.1016/j.appet.2018.12.001Hilbert, A., Petroff, D., Herpertz, S., Pietrowsky, R., Tuschen-Caffier, B., Vocks, S., & Schmidt, R. (2019). Meta-analysis of the efficacy of psychological and medical treatments for binge-eating disorder. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 87(1), 91–105. https://doi-org.ezp.waldenulibrary.org/10.1037/ccp0000358.supp (Supplemental)Van Wormer, K., & Davis, D. R. (2018). Addiction treatment: A strengths perspective (4th ed.). Boston, MA: Cengage.Required Resources Van Wormer, K., & Davis, D. R. (2018). Addiction treatment: A strengths perspective (4th ed.). Boston, MA: Cengage. Chapter 5, “Gambling, Eating Disorders, Shopping, and Other Behavioral Addictions” (pp. 191-242) American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th ed.). Washington, DC: Author. “Substance-Related and Addictive Disorders” (pp. 481, 585–589) Grant, J. E., Potenza, M. N., Weinstein, A., & Gorelick, D. A. (2010). Introduction to behavioral addictions. American Journal of Drug & Alcohol Abuse, 36(5), 233–241. Retrieved from the Walden Library databases. Hammer, R. R., Dingel, M. J., Ostergren, J. E., Nowakowski, K. E., & Koenig, B. A. (2012). The experience of addiction as told by the addicted: Incorporating biological understandings into self-story. Culture, Medicine, & Psychiatry, 36(4), 712–734. Retrieved from the Walden Library databases. Polychronopoulos, G. B., Carlisle, K. L., Carlisle, R. M., & Kirk-Jenkins, A. J. (2014). The emergence of behavioral addiction in DSM-5. Journal of Human Services, 34(1), 158–162. Retrieved from the Walden Library databases. Shinebourne, P. & Smith, J. A. (2009). Alcohol and the self: An interpretive phenomenological analysis of the experience of addiction and its impact on the sense of self and identity. Addiction Research and Theory, 17(2), 152–167. Retrieved from the Walden Library databases. Document: Abstinence Exercise (PDF)
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