1. When we do an experiment , wea. measure independent variablesb. produce dependent variablesc. produce control variablesd. produce a comparisone. hold independent variables constant2. The control group in an experimenta. fixes the level of a variable across all experimental conditionsb. is often untreatedc. receives the same level of the independent variable as the experimental groupd. refers to the manipulation of the independent variable3. In research on the decompression of pregnant rats, the independent variable is __________, a dependent variable is __________, and a control variable is __________.a. reduced air pressure; behavioral tests; strain of the ratb. body weight; climbing ability; time of dayc. atmospheric pressure; age of rat; climbing abilityd. number of decompressions; body weight; home cagee. experimental group; control group; test performance4. In experiments, independent variables area. the result of careful measurementsb. extraneous to the experiment and held constantc. extraneous to the experiment and allowed to vary randomlyd. independent of experimenter controle. varied by the researcher5. Dependent variables area. manipulated by the researcherb. potential independent variables that are held constantc. measured by the researcherd. probable behavioral causes6. One reason a valid experiment may produce null results is thata. the range of levels in the independent variable was insufficient to show an effectb. the dependent variable reflects a broad range of performancec. the experiment is conducted in an environment that is too difficultd. reactivity occurs in the participants (such as, they adopt the role of “good behavior”)7. In experiments, the independent variable should be __________, the dependent variable should be __________, and the control variable should be __________.a. controlled; constant; randomizedb. constant; an effect; causalc. free; restricted; elevatedd. balanced; unconfounded; an effecte. manipulated; measured; held constant8. An interaction occurs whena. an independent variable effects a dependent variableb. one independent variable effects a second independent variablec. the effect one dependent variable has is not the same at each level of a second dependent variabled. the effect one independent variable has is not the same at each level of a second independent variable9. The Hawthorne effect is an example ofa. experimenter biasb. reactivity in an experimentc. participant observationd. unobtrusive outcomes10. A variable that inadvertently causes an experimental result isa. confounded with the dependent variableb. confounded with the independent variablec. confounded with the control variablesd. unlikely to be important in experiments11. Construct validity permits one toa. generalizeb. attribute causalityc. have confidence in constructsd. support the hypothesis12. A source of construct invalidity isa. biasb. random errorc. carry-over effectsd. counterbalancing13. If a study has external validity, one is entitled toa. generalizeb. attribute causalityc. have confidence in constructsd. support the hypothesis14. Internal validity allows one toa. generalizeb. attribute causalityc. have confidence in constructsd. support the hypothesis15. Which of the following is the most likely to have the greatest internal validity?a. Surveysb. Case studiesc. Relational researchd. Experiments16. Test reliability determined by a correlation between scores from the same test taken at two different times is calleda. test-retest reliabilityb. parallel forms reliabilityc. split-half reliabilityd. predictive reliability17. Statistical reliability determines whether resultsa. will occur five percent of the timeb. occur because of chancec. are internally validd. are produced by bias18. A major threat to internal validity isa. confoundingb. deviant-case analysisc. truncated ranged. dependent variables19. A type of validity that is specifically concerned with being able to make causal statements about relationships between variables is __________ validity.a. externalb. internalc. constructd. predictive20. A replication of research helps to determine __________ validity.a. constructb. externalc. internald. predictive
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