research design and independent, dependent and confusing variables, psychology homework help

For #35-39: An educational psychologist wanted to compare two methods of preparing preschool children for kindergarten.  One method relied heavily on direct instruction, including drilling students on the alphabet, colors, shapes, and numbers.  The other method consisted of exploratory play in which students played with toys featuring different colors and shapes and sang songs about the alphabet and numbers.  The educational psychologist found that a local Head Start program for low-income families with 3-4 year olds was using the direct instruction method, and that an expensive local Montessori preschool with 4-5 year olds was using the exploratory play method.  The educational psychologist came in to all of the classes and assessed the children’s kindergarten readiness, as indicated by their vocabulary (number of words each child spoke in a 10-minute period) and attentional capacity (how long the child sat watching an hour-long puppet show).  However, the puppeteer was sick when doing the puppet show for the children in the direct instruction classes, so the children in the back of the room couldn’t hear her very well. The results indicated that the children in the exploratory play classes were more prepared for kindergarten than were the children who received direct instruction.  The educational psychologist concluded that the exploratory play method was superior and that preschool educators should adopt this method.

1.  Identify the research design for this study and how you know. (2 points)

2.  Identify the independent variable(s) and its (their) level(s). (2 points)

3.  Identify the dependent variable(s) and its (their) operational definition(s). (2 points)

4.  Identify 3 possible confounding variables. (3 points)

5.  Describe 3 specific (and different) ways to control for this confounding. (3 points)

answer all five questions 50-100 words

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