RESPONSE 1· Respond to at least two colleagues who selected a different theory from the one you selected.· Explain how another systems theory, that neither you nor your colleague has previously discussed, might be applied to the course-specific case study your colleague selected.Colleague 1: DanaTheories allow social workers to gain insight how and why people do the things they do, and illustrates the nature of the behavior (Robbins, Chatterjee, & Canda, 2012). People do not come to social workers if they are having a great day. Social workers are to empower and create positive change for others. There are many aspects to take into consideration by gathering information and theories. Theories present underlying issues that are demonstrated by the person’s behavior. Therefore, a theory is vital for social workers to be able to identify. A given theory can allow social workers to organize observations and gather meaningful information (Beder, 2000).While reviewing this week’s recourses the theory that appeals to me the most is the macro level. Research indicates that the macro level theories demonstrate a balance that is abstract and general to effectively present structure and functioning within large entities such as societies, cultures and communities (Robbins, Chatterjee, & Canda, 2012). This theory can be applied towards educating and providing awareness about issues that are creating social problems within large entities. This applies to me more as an up and coming social worker since I have recently been facilitating groups and I have observed how powerful groups can be within communities. While facilitating groups you can visually see others responses towards the information that is provided while encouraging and engaging others to participate. So far I have facilitated inpatient and outpatient substance abuse group that has been an enriching experience to create such a tremendous impact to encourage and empower others. This theory type is best for me since I have had the opportunity to work on this level and been able to effectively encourage others within larger entities.ReferencesBeder, J. (2000). The integration of theory into practice: Suggestions for supervisors. Professional Development: The International Journal of Continuing Social Work Education, 3(2), 40–48. Retrieved from http://www.profdevjournal.org/articles/32040.pdfRobbins, S. P., Chatterjee, P., & Canda, E. R. (2012). Contemporary human behavior theory: A critical perspective for social work (3rd ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Allyn & BaconCollegue 2: LeaIn The Case of Carl (Plummer, Makris, & Brocksen, 2014), there are various social systems involved in the makeup of his life and experiences. His family system consists of himself and his two daughters all of whom are affected by the life-cycle system as represented by the loss of his wife. The social system as evidenced by the down-sized employer and the community, of which he is a mayor. Furthermore, there is involvement of a religious or spiritual system, as well as that of a social services aspect, both involved with counseling Carl and his daughters through their grief. For Carl, the state of his being displays aspects of the interactions between all the systems discussed in Robbins, Chatterjee, and Canda’s (2012) text. Involved are the individual aspects as experienced by Carl, himself; the family aspect involving his deceased wife and his two daughters; the small group aspect of the carpool group; the communities’ aspect of his church and constituents; and the societal structure of the economy and, perhaps, his minority status and culture.These structures to not stand alone, nor are they neatly boxed and separated. Each flows in and out of each other in an interactive web of connectivity. For example, Carl’s church will have involvement with his family, and so, though he did not feel talking to the minister helped him, psychologically, he and his daughters will be receiving some spiritual support based on their beliefs. These supports will come in the form of interaction with a community of believers and the larger structure of their religion. Additionally, the downturn of the economy in his area would most likely affect an increase in social services and the availability of agencies that can support him as he grieves, raises his children, and looks for work. Also related would be the parents who run the carpool group, supporting both Carl and his daughters in getting to and from their various activities.As described by Robbins, et. al. (2012), Carl’s life, in relation to Systems Theory, would show Carl as the center circle, or focal system,;including sub-systems (his family, his spirituality his emotions, and his cognitions); and interacting with supra system (the community, the church, the family, etc). Taking all of these systems into account, Carl’s social worker used a cognitive behavioral approach as well as interpersonal therapy to assist Carl in returning to a pre-crisis level of functioning. These approaches are meant to help Carl reframe, redirect, and accept assistance. In addition to this therapy, however, I would argue that Carl’s grief and loss must also be addressed. Boss and Carnes (2012) state that the experience of loss, in Carl’s case, the loss of his wife, reminds us that that closure never really happens. The lack of such closure can lead to longstanding difficulties with overcoming profound grief. The therapeutic challenge in working with Carl would lie in helping him find meaning in the meaningless, thus replacing the need for, and absence of, closure. According to Boss and Carnes (2012), this type of therapy shifts the therapeutic relationship in that it will not be brief, nor will it have a termination. Finding meaning is an on-going process and will change over time. Though the relationship can celebrate victories, it cannot truly end, and the door must stay open for further exploration.References:Boss, P., & Carnes, D. (2012). The Myth of Closure. Family Process, 51(4), 456-469. doi:10.1111/famp.12005Plummer, S.-B., Makris, S., & Brocksen S. M. (Eds.). (2014). Social work case studies: Concentration year. Baltimore, MD: Laureate International Universities PublishingRobbins, S. P., Chatterjee, P., & Canda, E. R. (2012). Contemporary human behavior theory: A critical perspective forRESPONSE 2· Respond to two of your colleagues’ posts by citing substantive new research that clarifies, contextualizes, or offers an alternative interpretation of the content.Colleague 1: BrittanyIn the case of Suzy, I feel it is important to implement a good interdisciplinary team that can help her with her mental state. She will need a doctor who can prescribe a medication for her such as Wellbutrin or other medication that can help her with her depression and anxiety, and other medications to help her alcohol concerns, and psychotropic meds to help other concerns. A description of pharmacological is medication such as antipsychotics and it can reduce hallucinations (Preston, Neal, Talaga, 2017).Neurobiological considerations are to assess and gain a family history and make sure to see if there are potential barriers that could occur in her treatment from professionals that could be hazardous. It is also important to take note that she has a family history of substance and medication abuse, and take precautions that she will not act upon her hereditary intentions that have been previously noted. It has been established that clients benefit from a combination of both counseling and medication to treat their mental health symptoms (Preston, O’Neal & Talaga, 2017). It is also important to make sure that Suzy is a part of her plan of action for treatment and make sure to give her self-determination of treatment so that she wants to do it.ReferencesPreston, J. D., O’Neal, J. H., & Talaga, M. C. (2017). Handbook of clinical psychopharmacology for therapists (8th ed.). Oakland, CA: New Harbinger.Colleague 2: FatimaIn Suzy’s case I would prescribe Buspirone to treat her general anxiety. Although Benzodiazepines are an effective treatment for anxiety, they are habit forming. Both Suzy’s parents had substance abuse issues; Suzi’s father was an alcoholic and Suzy’s mother was addicted to prescription pain medication. According to Preston, O’Neal, and Talaga (2017) “individuals who do, in fact, present a significant risk of abuse are people with a personal or family history of alcohol or other substance abuse. With such individuals, benzodiazepines are not appropriate” (p. 2435). Buspirone is a non habit forming drug and is safe to use with patients who may develop an addiction. Buspirone is part of a long term treatment plan and it takes a few weeks to take full effect.Psychological treatment in Suzy’s case is just as important as pharmacotherapy. Suzy’s alcohol abuse is most likely increasing her general anxiety. Therefore, I would address it first. As stated by Preston et. al (2017), some substance abuse disorders can be due to one’s genetics. In Suzy’s case this is very likely because of her parent’s substance abuse history. It is possible that Suzy’s anxiety could also have a biological explanation. Preston et. al (2017) explain that recent research has shown that early child abuse and neglect may alter one neurologically and put that individual more at risk for anxiety. Preston at. Al (2017) also state that research shows that psychotherapy can also potentially alter one’s neurobiology. However, anxiety is most commonly thought to be purely psychogenic (Preston et. al, 2017).ReferencesPreston, J. D., O’Neal, J. H., & Talaga, M. C. (2017). Handbook of clinical psychopharmacology for therapists (8th ed.). Oakland, CA: New Harbinger.****EACH RESPONSE NEEDS TO BE 1/2 PAGE WITH AT LEAST ONE REFERENCE***
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